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Open-Web Animate Joists
For bulk redistribution solutions, it is my alternative to use trussed administration members, rather than abandoned beams, to ensure able alteration of the activated load. Trussed agency affiliated associates amid erect to both the basal and top chords of the absolute joists in affiliation with askew web associates affiliated to the affiliated associates at the circle of the axle chords. The consistent agreement looks like a bandage and provides greater acerbity than an abandoned axle affiliated to either the basal or top axle chords alone.
I additionally acclaim that no added than bristles joists be affianced by any one redistribution member. In addition, the use of pipes for the affiliated redistribution bandage ambit associates can be advantageous, as this blazon of breadth fits neatly through the V-shaped console point openings created at the circle of the absolute chords and web members. However, bulk redistribution solutions may be difficult to install, depending on accessibility and the attendance of absolute MEP systems, ceilings, or added appurtenances.
In accession to the animate joists presented in the SJI’s 80-year manual, there were additionally a cardinal of joists produced by manufacturers that were either never associates of the SJI or abutting it later.
Some of these manufacturers include: Ashland Animate Joists (manufactured by Ashland Animate Articles Co., Inc, Ashland City, Tennessee); Vescom Structural Systems, Inc., Westbury, New York; Ridgeway Joists (manufactured by Continental Animate Ltd., Coquitlam, British Columbia); Northwest Axle Bound (a Division of Brittain Animate Limited, New Westminster, British Columbia); Cadmus Long Bulk and Axle Corporation (affiliated with Alexandria Iron Works, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia); T-Chord Longspan Joists (manufactured by the Haven Busch Company, Grandville and Grand Rapids, Michigan); and the Macomber Animate Company, Canton, Ohio. Table 1 (PDF) provides a arbitrary description of the joists produced by these manufacturers.
In addition, some manufacturers, above-mentioned to acceptable SJI members, produced articles added than the absolute accepted SJI axle series. Some of these manufacturers include: Truscon Animate Company, Youngstown, Ohio; Macmar and Kalmantruss joists (manufactured by Kalman Animate Corporation, a Subsidiary of Bethlehem Animate Company, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania); and Gabriel Animate Company, Detroit, Michigan. Table 2 (PDF) provides a arbitrary description of the joists produced by these manufacturers.
In addition, it should be acclaimed that Bethlehem Animate Company additionally produced cold-formed joists with hat-channel sections for the ambit members, and Gabriel Animate Company additionally produced different V-shaped top-chord and distinct round-bar bottom-chord members.
Additional manufacturers not included in Tables 1 and 2 are: Berger Animate Company (double V-shaped ambit members); Armco Animate (cold-formed hat-channel ambit members); Raychord Corporation (cold-formed hat-channel and U-shaped ambit members); Republic Animate (cold-formed hat-channel ambit members); and USS AmBridge (cold-formed U-shaped ambit members).
As adumbrated above, abacus new joists or beams to an absolute arrangement can additionally be acclimated to board new endless on an absolute axle structure. Back new associates are added alongside to the absolute joists, the new framing can be acclimated either to abate the accessory breadth of the absolute joists or to accommodate absolute abutment of the new endless such that there is no appulse on the absolute joists. Methods acclimated to install new alongside framing generally absorb manufacturing, shipping, and architecture the new associates application acreage splices.
However, it is accessible to install new feature bogus joists by agency of apart end address assemblies. In this scenario, the joists are aboriginal erected on a askew to acquiesce the top ambit to be aerial aloft the address elevation. The axle is again rotated into an erect position, with the lower allocation of the address accumulation again alone and anchored into place. Typically, in this situation, a shallower address bench is additionally provided for affluence of accession and again shimmed already the new axle is in its able position.
When new beams or added agnate associates are added erect to the axle span, the new framing serves to abate the bulk of the absolute members, thereby accretion the load-carrying accommodation of the joists. However, it is still all-important to assay the absolute joists to ensure that no bulk reversals accept occurred in tension-only web associates and that the absolute activated moment avalanche aural the actual absolute moment accommodation envelope of the joist. As with bulk redistribution solutions, both of the aloft new framing approaches may be difficult to install.
New framing that involves the accession of independent, standalone axle and cavalcade frames is advised to accommodate absolute abutment of the new endless such that there is no appulse on the absolute axle framing. This blazon of new framing can absorb beams amid either below or aloft the impacted absolute framing and accurate by new columns and foundations, or beams that anatomy amid absolute columns. This blazon of band-aid can additionally absorb new axle frames accurate from posts amid anon aloft absolute beams or columns. The aloft solutions are about added adjustable to the attendance of absolute MEP systems, ceilings, or added appurtenances.
Procedures for reinforcing joists, expertly declared in the SJI’s Abstruse Digest No. 12, absorb two basal approaches: 1) ignore the backbone of the absolute affiliate and artlessly architecture the new accretion to backpack all of the activated load, or 2) make use of the backbone of the absolute affiliate back designing the reinforcement. Both of the recommended approaches about absorb decidedly added activity costs than actual costs because of the bulk associated with field-welding.
I adopt to abstain the use of acreage accretion for the afterward reasons. A bogus open-web animate axle is basically a pre-engineered product; however, back an architect complex with the modification of an absolute axle specifies new field-installed reinforcement, that aforementioned architect assumes the albatross for the all-embracing capability of the joist. This accountability extends to not alone the reinforcing modifications but also, inherently, to any pre-existing, alien altitude or deficiencies in the joist.
In addition, field-welding associated with the accession of accretion additionally poses apropos for the architecture engineer. Problems associated with field-welding accommodate acting localized accident of the actual backbone of the absolute animate due to calefaction generated by the weld, induced eccentricities, bare bulk aisle mechanisms, and abridgement of access, decidedly at the top chord.
The alone exceptions that I accomplish accommodate the accession of added web associates as bare to alteration concentrated endless greater than 150 pounds on chords that are amid greater than six inches from a console point to the abutting adjoining console point, and accretion advised by the aboriginal manufacturer’s engineer. It should additionally be acclaimed that a new, proprietary “weldless” joist-reinforcement arrangement is now bogus by Lindapter.
The assay of absolute open-web animate joists can be a arduous adventure and generally involves a ample bulk of detective work. Unfortunately, there is about little or no affidavit accessible apropos the accommodation of a specific absolute axle beneath investigation. However, it is hoped that the advertence advice provided in this commodity will abetment in accretion the likelihood that the accommodation of a axle can be bent application the absolute abstracts that is accessible from the SJI.
Typically, the analysis of an absolute axle after-effects in the charge to adapt the structural arrangement to accommodate for the abutment of new imposed loads. At this juncture, the architect charge again actuate if he or she is added adequate with bold the albatross and accountability for modifying a pre-engineered artefact or employing a possibly beneath chancy option, such as bulk redistribution or abacus new axle or axle framing. To abetment structural engineers with the appraisal and modification process, I accept developed a flowchart based on acquaintance with abundant projects that complex absolute joists.
D. Matthew Stuart, P.E., S.E., F.ASCE, SECB, is a accountant structural architect in 20 states. He currently works as a structural administration arch at Pennoni in Philadelphia, and additionally serves as an accessory assistant for the master’s of structural engineering affairs at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Added by D. Matthew Stuart
This commodity is acclimatized from the June 2009 and November 2009 issues of STRUCTURE magazine, with permission of the publisher, the National Council of Structural Engineers Associations (NCSEA).
Fisher, James, Michael West, and Julius Van de Pas. Designing with Animate Joists, Axle Girders and Animate Deck. Charlotte, North Carolina: Nucor Corporation, 1991. 2nd ed., 2002.
Steel Axle Institute. 80 Years of Open Web Animate Axle Construction. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina: Animate Axle Institute, 2009.
Steel Axle Institute. Axle Analysis Form (online).
Steel Axle Institute. Accepted Specifications, Bulk Tables and Weight Tables for Animate Joists and Axle Girders, 42nd ed. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina: Animate Axle Institute, 2007. Includes a abrupt history of open-web joists.
Steel Axle Institute. Abstruse Digest No. 12: Appraisal and Modification of Open Web Animate Joists and Axle Girders 2007. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina: Animate Axle Institute, 2007. An accomplished ability for the appraisal and modification of absolute joists and axle girders. Expertly describes procedures for reinforcing joists, and describes problems associated with field-welding.
Steel Axle Institute. Miscellaneous Animate Axle and Axle Girder Specifications and Bulk Tables. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina: Animate Axle Institute. SJI Archives.
Higgins, Robert. SlideRuleEra web site. Provides civilian and structural engineering information, including out-of-print materials, public-domain abstracts with bound availability, and older, usually bourgeois methods for analytic abstruse problems.
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Flowchart diagramming an engineer’s controlling action for evaluating the reclaim of absolute open-web animate joists. Image: Courtesy D. Matthew Stuart Extra Large Image
Open-web animate joists accept been bogus application a array of accepted animate members. Photo: Courtesy D. Matthew Stuart Extra Large Image
Detail assets of the Allspan Animate Axle bogus by Macomber Inc. Image: Courtesy D. Matthew Stuart Extra Large Image
Diagram assets assuming the methods for adhering lathe to Truscon O-T Animate Joists. Image: Courtesy D. Matthew Stuart Extra Large Image
Axonometric diagram assuming the use of a animate axle in a blended arrangement with animate accessory and a accurate slab. Image: Courtesy D. Matthew Stuart
Detail assets of a Macomber axle arrangement advised for use in ablaze wood-frame residential construction. Image: Courtesy D. Matthew Stuart Extra Large Image
Steel Joist Table – steel joist table
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